The plants are among the most important species on the planet that provide us with oxygen as well as food. The most fascinating plant-based processes is photosynthesis, which is the method by which they convert sunlight energy into chemical energy that is in Sugars. In this article, we’ll examine the process of photosynthesis in depth and include its background as well as the role played by chlorophyll and the equation used to calculate photosynthesis.

The History of Photosynthesis

The idea of photosynthesis dates to the early Greeks who observed that plants seemed to flourish most effectively near windows or in bright sunlight. But it was not that long ago in the seventeenth century when a Dutch scientist by the name of Jan van Helmont first proposed the concept that plants could create food by consuming light and air. It was not until during the late 19th century, that researchers were able demonstrate that light was an important element of photosynthesis.

The Role of Chlorophyll in Photosynthesis

Chlorophyll is the color of green located in chloroplasts. They are the organelles in plant cells in which photosynthesis takes place. Chlorophyll is an essential component of photosynthesis since it absorbs energy from light and transforms the energy into chemical. There are two kinds of chlorophyll within plants, namely chlorophyll A and the chlorophyll type b. Chlorophyll A absorbs light the most effectively in the red and blue parts of the spectrum while chlorophyll B is the most effective at absorbing light in the blue and orange regions.

The Photosynthesis Equation
Photosynthesis is a process that may be written in the following manner:

6.CO2 + 6H2O + Light Energy = C6H12O6 + 6O2.

In this equation carbon dioxide (CO2) and water (H2O) are the reactants. Glucose (C6H12O6) along with oxygen (O2) are the end products. The energy of the sun’s rays are used to break up water molecules, which releases electrons, which then convert CO2 into glucose. The oxygen produced in photosynthesis occurs as a result, and is released into the air.

The Light-Dependent Reactions
The first step of photosynthesis is photochemical reactions that depend on light, and occur in the thylakoid membranes within the chloroplasts. In these reactions the energy of light is absorbed into the chlorophyll and the other pigments and then utilized to produce ATP (adenosine triphosphate) and NADPH (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide) that are high in energy. These energy-rich molecules are utilized in light-dependent reactions, which are described in the following sections.

The Light-Independent Reactions
The next stage of photosynthesis is light-independent reactions that take place in the stroma that surrounds the chloroplasts. Through these processes, energy generated by ATP or NADPH is used to drive to convert carbon dioxide to glucose. This process is known as the Calvin cycle and is a series of enzyme-catalyzed processes that convert carbon dioxide to glucose.

Factors Affecting Photosynthesis

There are many variables that affect speed of photosynthesis such as light intensity temperature, light intensity, and presence of carbon dioxide.

Light Intensity
Light intensity is among the major factors that influence how much photosynthesis takes place. When the intensity of light increases it is believed that the speed of photosynthesis increases. This phenomenon is called the point of saturation of light, which happens when the rate at which photosynthesis slows down as increasing intensity of the light. After this, increasing intensity of light won’t lead to an increase in the rate of photosynthesis.

The temperature also plays an important role on the amount of photosynthesis. In general it is observed that the speed of photosynthesis rises when temperatures rise, up to a certain degree. After that photosynthetic rate declines as temperatures continue to rise. This is due to the fact that temperatures above a certain point can cause damage to the delicate chloroplasts and other cell structures. They may affect the enzymes that are involved in photosynthesis.

Carbon Dioxide Availability
The presence of carbon dioxide is another major factor that influences how much photosynthesis takes place. A rise in the level of carbon dioxide present in air leads to an increased rate for photosynthesis. However, this correlation isn’t linear, so the amount of photosynthesis increases off as the level of carbon dioxide rises.

Importance of Photosynthesis
Photosynthesis is essential to the existence on Earth because it generates the energy that powers all different biological functions. Photosynthesis is the principal energy source for all autotrophic species, which includes algae and plants and is also the energy source for many heterotrophic species which feed off these autotrophic species. Furthermore, photosynthesis creates oxygen which is vital to the survival of all organisms.

Food Production
Photosynthesis is the main method by which plants create food. The glucose created by photosynthesis is stored within the plant as a energy source. If the plant requires energy, it will disintegrate the glucose and release energy inside. This process is essential to the longevity of the plant and is crucial to the survival of other creatures that feed off plants.

Oxygen Production
In addition to the production of foods, it also generates oxygen. In photosynthesis, carbon dioxide is transformed into glucose and the oxygen created as a byproduct of the process is released into the air. The oxygen produced is vital to the survival of all living organisms because it is essential to carry out cellular respiration, the process that allows cells to produce energy.

Limitations of Photosynthesis
Although it is important however, photosynthesis isn’t an ideal process and it’s not without limitations.

Light Intensity Limitations
One of the biggest drawbacks of photosynthesis is the fact the fact that it requires light for it for it to take place. It is the reason that photosynthesis can only take place during the day and then ceases at the time of night. This could be a challenge for plants that reside in areas that have limited light like dark forests, caves or even caves.

Carbon Dioxide Limitations
Another drawback of photosynthetic processes is the fact that they needs carbon dioxide for it to take place. It is because photosynthesis may be limited due to carbon dioxide’s availability especially in areas that have excessive levels of pollution of the air. Furthermore, the high concentration that contain carbon dioxide could cause global warming, that can cause negative effects on the earth.

Temperature Limitations
Additionally, photosynthesis is restricted by temperature. When temperatures rise it is a sign that the speed of photosynthesis will increase up to the point at which it is. Beyond that point photosynthetic rate declines as temperatures continue to rise. This implies that plants that live in areas that have high temperatures are less likely to photosynthesis.